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Lifecycle of a Democracy : Swingers Discussion 2118891051
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TOPIC: Lifecycle of a Democracy
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"Ghost, I would prefer a mature and intelligent discussion over a puerile "battle" to see who has more verbal machismo. Sorry that you see it that way."

Do YOU see it that way? I did not get the impression from your continued replies to your opponents responses to your posts that you were 'trying to have an intelligent debate' but more of an intellectual evisceration of one more low information neoclown when you get right to the nub of it...

My bad :-*

East Fishkill NY
 
 
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This is interesting.

:A professional deposit banker (argentarius, coactor argentarius, or later nummularius) received and held deposits for a fixed or indefinite term, and lent money to third parties.[565] The senatorial elite were involved heavily in private lending, both as creditors and borrowers, making loans from their personal fortunes on the basis of social connections.[566] The holder of a debt could use it a means of payment by transferring it to another party, without cash changing hands. Although it has sometimes been thought that ancient Rome lacked "paper" or documentary transactions, the system of banks throughout the Empire also permitted the exchange of very large sums without the physical transfer of coins, in part because of the risks of moving large amounts of cash, particularly by sea. Only one serious credit shortage is known to have occurred in the early Empire, a credit crisis in 33 AD that put a number of senators at risk; the central government rescued the market through a loan of 100 million HS made by the emperor Tiberius to the banks (mensae).[567] Generally, available capital exceeded the amount needed by borrowers.[568] The central government itself did not borrow money, and without public debt had to fund deficits from cash reserves.[569] Emperors of the Antonine and Severan dynasties overall debased the currency, particularly the denarius, under the pressures of meeting military payrolls.[570] Sudden inflation during the reign of Commodus damaged the credit market.[571] In the mid-200s, the supply of specie contracted sharply.[572] Conditions during the Crisis of the Third Century—such as reductions in long-distance trade, disruption of mining operations, and the physical transfer of gold coinage outside the empire by invading enemies—greatly diminished the money supply and the banking sector by the year 300.[573] Although Roman coinage had long been fiat money or fiduciary currency, general economic anxieties came to a head under Aurelian, and bankers lost confidence in coins legitimately issued by the central government. Despite Diocletian's introduction of the gold solidus and monetary reforms, the credit market of the Empire never recovered its former robustness.[574]

Saint Louis MO
 
 
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The primary source of direct tax revenue was individuals, who paid a poll tax and a tax on their land, construed as a tax on its produce or productive capacity.[183] Supplemental forms could be filed by those eligible for certain exemptions; for example, Egyptian farmers could register fields as fallow and tax-exempt depending on flood patterns of the Nile.[188] Tax obligations were determined by the census, which required each head of household to appear before the presiding official and provide a head count of his household, as well as an accounting of property he owned that was suitable for agriculture or habitation.[188] A major source of indirect-tax revenue was the portoria, customs and tolls on imports and exports, including among provinces.[183] Special taxes were levied on the slave trade. Toward the end of his reign, Augustus instituted a 4 percent tax on the sale of slaves,[189] which Nero shifted from the purchaser to the dealers, who responded by raising their prices.[190] An owner who manumitted a slave paid a "freedom tax", calcuated at 5 percent of value.[191] An inheritance tax of 5 percent was assessed when Roman citizens above a certain net worth left property to anyone but members of their immediate family. Revenues from the estate tax and from a 1 percent sales tax from auctions went toward the veterans' pension fund (aerarium militare).[183] Low taxes helped the Roman aristocracy increase their wealth, which equaled or exceeded the revenues of the central government. An emperor sometimes replenished his treasury by confiscating the estates of the "superrich," but in the later period, the resistance of the wealthy to paying taxes was one of the factors contributing to the collapse of the Empire.[31]

Saint Louis MO
 
 
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Taxation under the Empire amounted to about 5 percent of gross product.[29] The typical tax rate paid by individuals ranged from 2 to 5 percent.[183] The tax code was "bewildering" in its complicated system of direct and indirect taxes, some paid in cash and some in kind. Taxes might be specific to a province, or kinds of properties such as fisheries or salt evaporation ponds; they might be in effect for a limited time.[184] Tax collection was justified by the need to maintain the military,[185] and taxpayers sometimes got a refund if the army captured a surplus of booty.[186] In-kind taxes were accepted from less-monetized areas, particularly those who could supply grain or goods to army camps.[187]

Saint Louis MO
 
 
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Nice riposte, sir...

Lakeside CA
 
 
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Whatever.

Pittsburgh PA
 
 
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"only pseudo-science, so we get to make shit up as we go."

So now you are admitting your post has no credibility?

Nice move...

Lakeside CA
 
 
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This whole topic has nothing to do with any real science.....only pseudo-science, so we get to make shit up as we go. You should be very familiar with this.

Pittsburgh PA
 
 
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You are the one making the premise.

You need data to back it up.

You really don't know anything about science, do you?

Lakeside CA
 
 
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Nice try. I already asked for sources that dispute the premise.

Pittsburgh PA
 
 
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TOPIC: Lifecycle of a Democracy